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Bernardo Ribeiro de Almeida

Housing, Land and Property Specialist

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Almeida is a development and legal professional with more than ten years’ experience in land-related law in international contexts and conflict sensitive Housing, Land and Property (HLP) programming, providing technical assistance to UN agencies and INGOs on land-related legislative processes. His work includes drafting and reviewing laws and legislations, design and implementation of land-related programmes, assessment of legal practices and stakeholders, as well as examining vulnerabilities associated to HLP concerns and protection risks. Almeida is skilled in working in cross-cultural environments, combining academic research with field experience, and managing the liaison and mediation between diverse stakeholders in the development and implementation of legislation and land-related projects.


Almeida is currently finishing his PhD thesis at the Van Vollenhoven Institute, Leiden University, Holland, conducting research on the topic ‘Land tenure, land legislation, and the law-making process in Timor-Leste


2022, Almeida B. & Jacobs C., Land expropriation – The hidden danger of climate change response in Mozambique, Land Use Policy 123: 1-10 (106408).

2022, Almeida B., A Sociolegal Analysis of Formal Land Tenure Systems: Learning from the Political, Legal, and Institutional Struggles of Timor-Leste Law, Development and Globalization. Oxon: Routledge.

2022, Almeida B., Faulty assumptions and misconceptions about land registration. In: Barnes S. (Ed.) Land tenure in Timor-Leste: Between resilient custom and the resurgent state. Coimbra | Lisboa | Díli | Melbourne: TLSA PT 2020. 69-77.

2021, Almeida B., The law and its limits: land grievances, wicked problems, and transitional justice in Timor-Leste, International Journal of Transitional Justice 15(1): 128-147.

2021, Jacobs C.I.M. & Ribeiro de Almeida B., Government-led Resettlement after Natural Disasters as a Durable Solution?: The Case of Cyclone Idai, Refugee Survey Quarterly 40(2): 239-247.

2020, Ribeiro de Almeida B., Building land tenure systems: The political, legal, and institutional struggles of Timor-Leste (PhD thesis. Institute for the Interdisciplinary Study of the Law, Faculty of Law, Leiden University) Meijers-reeks no. MI-352. Supervisor(s) and Co-supervisor(s): Bedner, A.W., Jacobs, C.I.M.

202, Jacobs C.I.M. & Ribeiro de Almeida B., Research report - Land and climate change: Rights and environmental displacement in Mozambique. Leiden: Van Vollenhoven Institute for Law, Governance and Society (VVI), Leiden University.

2020, Ribeiro de Almeida B. & Jacobs C.I.M., Síntese de pesquisa - A terra e as alterações climáticas: Direitos e deslocamento ambiental em Moçambique. Leiden, Van Vollenhoven Institute for Law, Governance and Society (VVI).

2019, Almeida B., With or Without International Institutions? Acquisition of land rights for infrastructure projects in the weak legal framework of Timor-Leste. In: Price S., Singer J. (Eds.) Country Frameworks for Development Displacement and Resettlement: Reducing Risk, Building Resilience. Routledge studies in development, mobilities and migration London: Routledge. 269-287.

2018, Ribeiro de Almeida B., A aplicação da usucapião em Timor-Leste [Adverse possession in Timor-Leste], e-boletim Lei & Justiça 1(1): 5-15.

2018, Ribeiro de Almeida B., Expropriation or Plunder? Property rights and infrastructure development in Oecusse. In: Bovensiepen J.M. (Ed.) The Promise of Prosperity: Visions of the Future in Timor-Leste. Pacific Series Canberra: ANU Press. 99-118.

2018, Ribeiro de Almeida B., Hakarak ka lakoi? Os limites da expropriação em Timor-Leste [Hakarak ka lakoi? The limits of expropriation in Timor-Leste], e-boletim Lei & Justiça 1(2): 19-35.

2017, Ribeiro de Almeida B., The Main Characteristics of the Timorese Legal System – a Practical Guide, Verfassung und Recht in Übersee / World Comparative Law 50(2): 175-187.

2017, Almeida B., Navigating without a compass: state transition in Timor-Leste’s formal land tenure system. In: Matos Viegas S. de & Feijó R.G. (Eds.) Transformations in Independent Timor-Leste: Dynamics of Social and Cultural Cohabitations. Routledge/City University of Hong Kong Southeast Asia Series no. 8 London-New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. 123-141.

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